These guidelines cover the use of byproduct materials in six major highway construction applications: (1) Asphalt Concrete; (2) Portland Cement Concrete; (3) Granular Base; (4) Embankment or Fill; (5) Stabilized Base; and (6) Flowable Fill. In each of these primary application categories, there is at least one possible material use, and in some cases there are several potential uses. This document includes guidelines for 19 by-product materials. The matrix below provides an easy method of navigating the material-application combinations. The materials do not represent the entire population of materials that have potential use in highway construction applications. These materials were selected based on the amount of the material generated as well as whether adequate data were available to prepare a description of the physical and chemical properties of the material and to describe the design requirements and performance records for one or more specific applications. The omission of a particular material-application match in these guidelines is not to be construed as a prohibition against its use; rather, omission merely indicates that the authors felt that either the material-application combination was inappropriate or that insufficient information was available to provide a useful guideline.

Asphalt concrete pavement Portland cement concrete pavement Granular base Embankment or fill Stabilized base Flowable fill
Baghouse fines x
Blast furnace slag x x x x
Coal bottom ash/boiler slag x x x x
Coal fly ash x x x x x
FG D scrubber material x x
Foundry sand x x x x
Kiln dusts x x
Mineral processing wastes x x x
MSW combustor ash x x
Nonferrous slags x x x
Quarry byproducts x
Reclaimed asphalt pavement x (hot and cold) x x
Reclaimed concrete material x x
Roofing shingle scrap x
Scrap tires x (wet and dry) x
Sewage sludge ash x
Steel slag x x
Sulfate wastes x
Waste glass x x

The major portion of this document presents, for each of the 19 materials, a description of the material and user guidelines that includes the applications listed in the matrix. In addition to material-specific guidelines, several chapters of the report are devoted to recommended evaluation procedures for assessing whether a material is suitable for use in a designated application and to the environmental and cost issues that need to be considered when evaluating the use of by-product materials in highway construction. Finally, summary descriptions of the six highway construction applications are presented to assist those readers who are interested in additional information relative to their design objectives and material uses.