The objective of this project was to characterize the properties of crushed recycled concrete (RCA) and asphalt pavement (RAP) as unbound base without being stabilized, to assess how RCA and RAP behave in the field and to determine how pavements can be designed using RCA and RAP. Issues to be considered include variability in material properties, purity of material, climatic effects, how to identify and control material quality, and leaching characteristics. This project included laboratory specimen and large-scale model tests and evaluation of field data from MnROAD test sections constructed using recycled materials. To identify the characteristics of RAP and RCA typically available in different parts of the country, samples were obtained from eight states: California, Colorado,Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin covering a geographically diverse area. A conventional base course was used as a control material. The extensive investigation undertaken on RCA and RAP indicate that these materials are generally suitable for unbound base course applications and they show equal or superior performance characteristics compared to natural aggregates in terms of stiffness, freeze-thaw and wet-dry durability, and toughness. Their typical compositional and mechanical properties and their variability are defined in this study providing a basis for design considerations. Their relative differences from natural aggregate such as temperature sensitivity, plastic deformations, and water absorption and retention characteristics are also well established.
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